Financial Statement Preparation And Analysis

Balance Sheet

List the company’s assets, liabilities, and equity. Assets include current assets (cash, accounts receivable, inventory) and non-current assets (property, plant, equipment). Liabilities encompass current liabilities (accounts payable, short-term debt) and long-term liabilities (long-term debt, deferred tax liabilities). Equity includes common stock, retained earnings, and additional paid-in capital.

Income Statement

Summarize revenue, cost of goods sold (COGS), gross profit, operating expenses, and net income. Break down operating expenses into categories like selling, general and administrative expenses. Include other income and expenses outside the core business operations.

Cash Flow Statement

Categorize cash flows into operating, investing, and financing activities.

Operating activities include cash received from customers and cash paid to suppliers.

Investing activities involve purchases and sales of assets. Financing activities encompass issuing or repurchasing stock, and borrowing or repaying loans.

Financial Statement Analysis

Liquidity Ratios: Assess the company’s short-term ability to meet its obligations (e.g., current ratio, quick ratio).

Profitability Ratios:

Evaluate the company’s ability to generate profit (e.g., gross margin, net profit margin).

Efficiency Ratios:

Measure how effectively the company utilizes its assets and liabilities (e.g., inventory turnover, accounts receivable turnover).

Solvency Ratios:

Examine the company’s long-term financial health and ability to meet long-term obligations (e.g., debt-to-equity ratio).

Trend Analysis

Compare financial statements over multiple periods to identify trends.

Look for consistent growth or decline in key financial indicators.

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